Blog Society 23 July 2014
The memorial service for the victims of the Malaysian plane crash, during the Opening Session of AIDS 2014.
AIDS 2014

AIDS 2014, a global conference bringing together thousands of the world’s top AIDS researchers, community leaders, people living with HIV and policy-makers, is currently under way in Cosmos’ hometown of Melbourne.

Our reporters and writers are at the event, which we are covering in detail.

But the event is a time for sadness, too, after six HIV researchers and lobbyists were killed when travelling on Malaysian flight MH17, which was shot down over Ukraine.

Last night in Melbourne’s Federation Square, hundreds attended a candlelight vigil to remember those delegates, as well as the 35 million lives lost to HIV-AIDS-related illnesses.

Among the passengers of MH17 was a giant of the HIV research community, Dutchman Joep Lange. He was travelling with his partner, Jacqueline van Tongeren, who worked at the Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development.

Lange was one of the pioneering Amsterdam researchers who helped us understand how HIV disrupted the human immune system and how we could turn that knowledge into effective treatment. Andrew Sullivan has a good post rounding up some of the tributes to Lange and his legacy here.

Blog Archaeology 04 February 2014

The largest of the 82 fragments from the Antikythera Mechanism, an ancient device that was used to calculate and predict astronomical events.
London Science Museum

A team of archeologists have returned to the remote Greek island of Antikythera where they have used the most sophisticated robot and submarine technology to search for one of the technological wonders of the ancient world.

The Antikythera shipwreck site was found by accident by sponge divers blown off course by a storm in 1900. Diver Elias Stadiatis told his shipmates he had seen corpses beneath the waves - the bodies were found to be a pile of bronze statues from an ancient shipwreck. The sponge divers became part of the world's first large scale underwater archeological expedition. They retrieved a remarkable haul, including a glass bowl and a 1.8 metre statue known as the Antikythera youth - one of the finest bronze figures from the ancient world.

But it took several decades before the most extraordinary find from the wreck was understood. Item 15087 was a lump of bronze about the size of a shoebox. It looked like a mechanical clock and was dubbed the Antikythera Mechanism. Originally believed to be from the first half of the first century BCE, a more recent view dates the mechanism at 205BCE.

In 1958, Yale physicist and historian Derek de Solla Price examined the mechanism for himself. He believed its 30 meshing bronze gears were used to calculate astronomical events, such as solar eclipses, or the next full moon, or the dates of the Olympic Games. In 1974, after an X-ray examination of the mechanism revealed missing gear teeth. Price wrote:

"Nothing like this instrument is preserved elsewhere. Nothing comparable to it is known from any scientific text or literary allusion. On the contrary, from all that we know of science and technology in the Hellenistic Age we should have felt that such a device could not exist.
"It must surely rank...