In 1987 the world signed the Montreal Protocol, an international treaty to protect the ozone layer.
The purpose of the treaty was to prevent chlorofluorocarbons from destroying the ozone layer. The treaty saw the regulation in the production and consumption of over 100 human-made chemicals – known as ozone-depleting substances.
And now, research reveals, that thanks to some wise decision making over 30 years ago, today’s global temperatures are considerably lower.
Montreal Protocol had a greater impact on global warming than the Kyoto Agreement
The research, published in Environmental Research Letters, reveals that thanks to the Montreal Protocol, by mid-century the Earth will be – on average – at least 1°C cooler than it would have been without the agreement. Mitigation is even greater in regions such as the Arctic, where the avoided warming will be as much as 3°C – 4°C.
“By mass CFCs are thousands of times more potent a greenhouse gas compared to CO2, so the Montreal Protocol not only saved the ozone layer but it also mitigated a substantial fraction of global warming,” says lead author of the paper Rishav Goyal.
“Remarkably, the Protocol has had a far greater impact on global warming than the Kyoto Agreement, which was specifically designed to reduce greenhouse gases. Action taken as part of the Kyoto Agreement will only reduce temperatures by 0.12°C by the middle of the century – compared to a full 1°C of mitigation from the Montreal Protocol.”
The findings were made inadvertently when the team set out to quantify how the Montreal Protocol had affected atmospheric circulation around Antarctica.
To get their results, the researchers modelled global climate under two scenarios of atmospheric chemistry – one with, and one without the Montreal Protocol being enacted.
They then extended these simulations into the future using conservative estimates for unmitigated CFC emissions – set to 3% growth per annum, much less than the observed CFC growth rates at the time of establishment of the Montreal Protocol. Their results therefore likely underestimate the actual impact of the international treaty to reduce CFCs.
Montreal Protocol shows international treaties can work
The success of the Montreal Protocol in mitigating climate change is even more striking when focusing on regional domains. For example, warming of between 0.5°C – 1°C has already been avoided over North America, Africa and Eurasia. By mid-century avoided warming in some of these areas will be 1.5°C – 2°C and over the Arctic avoided warming will be as much as 3°C – 4°C.
The researchers also found an amount of avoided ice melt due to the Protocol, with the extent of sea ice around the Arctic during summer around 25% greater today than it would have been without any reduction in CFC emissions. The avoided warming over Greenland also suggests that the observed accelerating ice sheet melt there and the associated sea level rise has also been reduced by the Protocol.
“Without any fanfare the Montreal Protocol has been mitigating global warming impacts for more than three decades, surpassing some treaties that were specifically aimed to ameliorate climate change impacts,” says co-author Martin Jucker.
Looking ahead, co-author Matthew England says, “The success of the Montreal Protocol demonstrates superbly that international treaties to limit greenhouse gas emissions really do work; they can impact our climate in very favourable ways, and they can help us avoid dangerous levels of climate change.”
“Montreal sorted out CFCs, the next big target has to be zeroing out our emissions of carbon dioxide.”
This article was first published on Australia’s Science Channel, the original news platform of The Royal Institution of Australia.
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