8 October 2006

Origin of species mostly in the tropics

Cosmos Online
The tropics may be the cradle of much of the world's biodiversity, and where most species arise before they spread elsewhere, according to a new study.
Origin of species mostly in the tropics

Tropical waters give rise to a greater variety of species than more temperate latitudes, a study of molluscs shows.

SYDNEY: The tropics may be the cradle of much of the world’s biodiversity, and where most species arise before they spread elsewhere, according to a new study.

Palaeontologists and biologists at the University of California at Berkeley and the University of Chicago showed that three-quarters of a large group of marine animals – including oysters, clams and other molluscs – first appeared in the tropics and later moved toward the poles.

Only the remaining quarter of this group emerged at higher latitudes, according to the scientists, whose study appears in the latest issue of the U.S. journal, Science.

James Valentine, biology professor at Berkeley and one of the co-authors of the study, said plants and other animal species probably originated in large part in the tropics.

Between 23.5 degrees latitude north and 23.5 degrees south of the equator, all land and waters of the tropics receive perpendicular sunlight at noon at lease once during the year. The warmer tropics are about 10 times as biodiverse as are the arctic regions, the researchers said.

The study answered in part a question that biologists have asked for more than a century: why is biodiversity on land and sea so much greater in the tropics?

“These species are spilling out of the tropics and increasing the diversity in temperate and arctic regions,” Valentine said. “We should preserve the tropics, because without them, there is no source anymore for diversity in higher latitudes.”

The so-called ‘latitudinal diversity gradient’ first became obvious as early naturalists and explorers returned from expeditions with more and more new species. Today, scientists estimate that there are over 10 times more species in the tropics than in the Arctic, and several times as many as in temperate regions, Valentine said.

“What we were really after here was this first-order, large-scale pattern that explained what is the most dramatic single biodiversity pattern on this planet,” said Jablonski. “If you came from outer space and you just started randomly observing life on Earth, or at least before people were here, the first thing you’d see is this just incredible profusion of richness in the tropics. This is the biggest pattern.”

Early explanations assumed that plants and animals didn’t spread much from their point of origin, and ascribed the latitudinal differences to the fact that tropical areas originate more species than do higher latitudes – making the tropics a ‘cradle of biodiversity’.

An alternative theory held that origination rates are similar at all latitudes, but extinction rates are higher in the north, making the tropics a ‘museum’ of older species compared to the poles. According to Valentine, nearly every combination of origination, extinction and migration differences has been proposed to explain the pattern.

“The number of species on Earth is this complex result of the origination rate and the extinction rate at any one place, plus the immigration, just the way the population of a town is the birth rate, the death rate and the immigration,” Jablonski said.

The new study is the first to provide extensive data for origination and migration rates, and shows much higher origination rates in the tropics and subsequent spreading of lineages to more northern latitudes, making the tropics both a cradle and a museum of biodiversity, the authors state.

“I think we’ve killed the idea that the tropics are either a cradle or a museum of biodiversity. They’re both,” Valentine said. “Migration out of the tropics underlies the latitudinal biodiversity gradient. We’ve seen this pattern in most forms of life for a century, now we know the dynamics behind it. But we still don’t know the ultimate cause. Why is the origination rate higher in the tropics?”

“The world is connected. It’s a global village, even for organisms,” added co-author Kaustuv Roy, associate professor of biology at the University of California at San Diego.

“The tropics are the engine for global biodiversity. What this means is that human-caused extinctions in the tropics will eventually start to affect the biological diversity in the temperate and high latitudes. This is not going to be apparent in the next 50 years, but it will be a long-term consequence,” he added.

Valentine and Roy wrote the paper with University of Chicago professor of geophysical sciences David Jablonski.

Valentine noted that greater tropical diversity has been documented for nearly all ecosystems, ranging from the deep sea, open ocean and continental shelf to terrestrial forests, grasslands and wetlands, and among plants, fungi, invertebrates and vertebrates. This biodiversity gradient has been characteristic of the Earth for at least the past 250 million years.

Despite the many theories for and against a tropical cradle or museum, not enough data on times and places of origination have been available to provide definitive tests of those ideas.

The three researchers found a gold mine, however, in the bivalves, thanks to the work of Jablonski, who spent years straightening out the taxonomy – or evolutionary relationships – among these two-shelled animals. Once the living and fossil bivalves were assigned to the correct genera, the team could study the geographical distribution and first appearance of as many of the 1,300 living bivalve genera as can be traced in the fossil record. Bivalves, with their hard calcium carbonate shells, are well preserved in marine sediments.

The researchers limited their analysis to families – 174 total – in which the majority of genera were represented in the fossil record of the past 11 million years. They focused on the genus level instead of species because species are harder to trace in the fossil record. Genera, the classification just above species, “track better the novelty and inventiveness of life,” Valentine said.

The team found that, among the various families of bivalves, between 57% and 94% of genera originated in the tropics. As expected, the lineages of tropical genera are younger than those at higher latitudes, reflecting the fact that the lineages originated in the tropics but took a while to migrate northward.

Valentine suspects that the greater origination rate of new species in the tropics has to do with the long and productive growing season there versus the short season in cold and Arctic regions. The harsh conditions in the north also make it harder for specialised feeders to survive. Species there tend to be generalists, able to subsist on various types of food, while tropical regions are able to support more specialists.

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